Cannabinoids Uncomplicated: Our No-Nonsense Guide

Kindling & Shane Fame Alexander
Cannabinoids Uncomplicated: Our No-Nonsense Guide

Cannabis can be a complex plant.

It has been shown to contain more than 100 different substances called cannabinoids. THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the most well-known component of cannabis. However, hemp—a variety of Cannabis sativa plant with very little THC—is used to make CBD. While THC has different effects on brain chemicals, CBD appears to have some of its own.

For epilepsy and seizure disorders, CBD is prescribed. Additionally, CBD is used to treat pain, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, Crohn's disease, dystonia, and a host of other illnesses; however, there isn't enough solid research to back up these claims. In this guide, we’re going to do a breakdown of what all of this really means to you.

 closeup photo of cannabis plant

Let’s make this clear - "cannabis" and "marijuana" are frequently used synonymously, they have different meanings.

All goods made from the Cannabis sativa plant are collectively referred to as "cannabis."

The cannabis plant has roughly 540 different chemical components.

Any product or portion of the Cannabis sativa plant that has significant levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is referred to as "marijuana." The main component of marijuana that has an impact on a person's mental health is THC. Very little THC is present in certain cannabis plants. In contrast to marijuana, these plants are regarded as "industrial hemp" under American law.

Cannabigerol (CBG)

One kind of cannabinoid present in the cannabis plant is cannabigerol (CBG). This part of the plant is frequently called the "mother of all cannabinoids." This is so because cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), an acidic form of CBG, is the source of other cannabinoids. Compared to other cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), CBG is present in cannabis plants in lesser concentrations. Because of this, cannabigerol-derived consumer goods are uncommon and frequently pricey. However, the numerous potential advantages that CBG provides are contributing to its rising popularity.

Origins and Concentration: CBG is found in cannabis plants in lower concentrations compared to other cannabinoids like THC and CBD. It's usually present in the early stages of the plant's growth cycle and converts into other cannabinoids as the plant matures.

Potential Therapeutic Properties: Despite its lower concentration, CBG has garnered attention for its potential therapeutic effects:

Anti-Inflammatory: CBG exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, potentially useful in conditions involving inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease or arthritis.

Antibacterial: Studies suggest CBG may have antibacterial properties and could be effective against certain bacterial strains, showing promise in fighting infections.

Neuroprotective: Early research indicates CBG's potential neuroprotective properties, suggesting it might aid in neurodegenerative conditions by promoting neurogenesis.

Gastrointestinal Support: CBG may have benefits for digestive health and gut-related disorders due to its interactions with the endocannabinoid system in the gut.

Emerging Research: While much of the information about CBG is based on preliminary studies and experiments in cell cultures and animal models, ongoing research aims to uncover its full therapeutic potential in humans.

Variety of Applications: CBG's potential benefits span across various areas, making it an intriguing subject for further exploration in the realm of cannabinoid-based medicine.


Cannabichromene (CBC)

Cannabichromene, or CBC, is a lesser-known cannabinoid found in cannabis. While not as extensively studied as THC or CBD, CBC has shown some promising properties and potential therapeutic effects. Cannabichromene may influence the nervous system and brain, as well as lessen edema and pain. Although there is interest in using cannabichromene for a variety of conditions, including swelling, pain, depression, and other conditions, there is not yet any reliable scientific evidence to support any use.

Non-Psychoactive Nature: Similar to CBD, CBC does not produce a high or intoxication, as it does not directly bind to the CB1 receptors in the brain. This makes it an appealing option for those seeking the potential benefits of cannabinoids without the psychoactive effects.

Potential Health Benefits: Research suggests that CBC may have various potential health benefits, although much of this is still in the preliminary stages and requires further investigation. 

Some reported effects include:

Anti-Inflammatory Properties: CBC has shown promise in reducing inflammation. It interacts with the body's natural endocannabinoid system and other receptors to potentially mitigate inflammatory responses.

Pain Relief: Studies indicate that CBC might contribute to pain relief, possibly by interacting with pathways involved in pain perception.

Neuroprotective Effects: Research suggests that CBC could support brain health by promoting neurogenesis (the formation of new brain cells) and potentially aiding in conditions related to neurodegeneration.

Potential Antidepressant Effects: Early studies in animals have shown that CBC might influence neural pathways related to depression.

Synergistic Effects: CBC may have enhanced effects when combined with other cannabinoids, a phenomenon known as the entourage effect. When paired with THC or CBD, CBC's potential therapeutic properties might be amplified.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

The second most common active component in cannabis, or marijuana, is CBD, or cannabidiol. CBD is a crucial part of medicinal marijuana, but it comes from the hemp plant, which is related to the marijuana plant, or is produced in a lab. As one of the hundreds of ingredients in marijuana, CBD doesn't make you feel "high" on its own. "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential," the World Health Organization reports. “The use of pure CBD does not currently appear to be linked to any issues with public health."

Therapeutic Properties: CBD has gained attention for its potential therapeutic benefits across a range of conditions:

Anxiolytic Effects: Known for its calming properties, CBD is reported to help alleviate anxiety and stress without inducing intoxication.

Anti-Inflammatory Actions: CBD shows promise in reducing inflammation and associated discomfort, making it a potential option for conditions like arthritis or inflammatory diseases.

Pain Relief: Studies suggest CBD might help manage pain perception, offering relief without the psychoactive effects associated with THC.

Neuroprotective Potential: Research indicates CBD's neuroprotective properties, suggesting it may have applications in neurological conditions such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

Antipsychotic Properties: There's ongoing exploration into CBD's potential to mitigate symptoms of psychosis and schizophrenia.

CBD and Addiction: Studies suggest that CBD may interact with the endocannabinoid system and other brain signaling systems involved in addiction. 

Reduced Cravings: Preclinical studies in animal models indicate that CBD might reduce drug-seeking behavior and cravings for substances like opioids, cocaine, and nicotine.

Withdrawal Symptoms: There's evidence suggesting that CBD may alleviate withdrawal symptoms associated with addiction, such as anxiety, pain, and insomnia, potentially aiding in the process of quitting addictive substances.

Neuroplasticity: CBD's influence on brain plasticity might contribute to reversing some of the brain changes caused by addiction, although this area requires further investigation.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the compound that gives marijuana most of its psychoactive effects. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), it functions similarly to the body's natural production of cannabinoid chemicals.

Certain parts of the brain linked to thought, memory, pleasure, coordination, and time perception have a high concentration of cannabinoid receptors. According to NIDA, THC binds to these receptors, activates them, and changes a person's memory, pleasure, thinking, movement, coordination, focus, and perception of time and space.

Psychoactive Effects: THC interacts with the endocannabinoid system, binding primarily to CB1 receptors in the brain and central nervous system. This interaction leads to various psychoactive effects, including:
    • Euphoria: Often associated with a sense of well-being and happiness.
    • Altered Perception: Heightened sensory perception, such as enhanced colors or intensified tastes and sounds.
    • Memory and Cognition: Short-term memory impairment and altered cognitive function.
    • Relaxation and Sedation: Inducing a state of relaxation or drowsiness.
    • Time Distortion: Perception of time passing differently than usual.
Medical Applications: THC has demonstrated potential therapeutic effects, including:
    • Pain Relief: Known for its analgesic properties, it may help alleviate various types of pain.
    • Appetite Stimulation: Often used medically to stimulate appetite, particularly in individuals undergoing chemotherapy or dealing with eating disorders.
    • Nausea and Vomiting: Can potentially reduce nausea and vomiting, especially in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Cannabinol (CBN)

The cannabis sativa plant contains the cannabinoid cannabinol (CBN). It is also capable of being synthesized.

When THC is exposed to heat, air, or light, it breaks down and forms CBN. "This is the reason why aged, dry cannabis has higher levels of CBN," says Eric Adams, president, CEO, and director of InMed Pharmaceuticals, a company that develops and produces rare cannabinoids. Nevertheless, CBN is not known to produce the euphoric, intoxicating effects linked to THC.

Research on CBN's specific effects and therapeutic potential is in its early stages. There's a lack of comprehensive human studies to solidify its reported benefits and applications. Due to its reported sedative properties, some individuals use products containing CBN to aid in sleep or relaxation. It's also being explored for potential pain management applications.

Reported Effects: While research on CBN is limited, some reported effects and potential uses include:
    • Sedative Properties: Some anecdotal evidence suggests that CBN might have sedative effects, potentially aiding in promoting sleep or relaxation.
    • Pain Relief: Studies in animals indicate that CBN might have analgesic properties, possibly assisting in managing pain, although further research in humans is needed.
    • Appetite Stimulation: There are indications that CBN might stimulate appetite, although this effect might not be as strong as THC's appetite-stimulating properties.

THC-V ( tetrahydrocannabivarin)

THC-V, or tetrahydrocannabivarin, is a minor cannabinoid found in cannabis that shares a similar molecular structure with THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). However, it exhibits distinct properties and effects. THC-V is is typically found in lower concentrations and differs from THC in its chemical structure, leading to varying effects and potential applications.  As of now, scientific research on THC-V is relatively limited compared to other cannabinoids. More comprehensive studies are needed to confirm its reported effects, safety profile, and therapeutic applications in humans.

THC-V’s distinct properties and potential therapeutic effects make it an intriguing subject for further exploration, particularly in the realms of appetite regulation, energy enhancement, and potential neurological benefits. However, due to the limited research available, more comprehensive studies are essential to fully understand its mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

Potential Effects: While research on THC-V is limited compared to THC or CBD, some studies and anecdotal evidence suggest potential effects, including:

Appetite Suppression: Some reports indicate that THC-V might act as an appetite suppressant. It's been studied for its potential role in weight management and reducing food intake.

Energy Boost: Anecdotal evidence suggests that in smaller doses, THC-V might provide energizing effects, promoting alertness and focus.

Diabetes and Blood Sugar Regulation: Preliminary research in animal models indicates that THC-V might help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity, showing potential in diabetes management.

Neuroprotective Potential: There's some ongoing investigation into THC-V's potential neuroprotective properties, suggesting it might have applications in conditions like Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. However, this area requires further research.

Back to blog

Leave a comment

New Products

1 of
1 of
1 of
1 of
1 of